316/316L STAINLESS VALVES
Valves are manufactured in ASTM A182 316/316L forgings and ASTM A351 CF8/CF3 castings. Trim components can also be in UNS S31600 and AISI-SAE 316/316L. Welded end valves can be in 316 but 316L is often preferred due to the lower carbon content which avoids inter granular corrosion in the as-welded state thereby providing superior corrosion resistance compared to 316. However 316 can be post-weld annealed to promote maximum corrosion resistance.
316 and 316L are molybdenum steels with enhanced resistance to pitting by solutions with chlorides and other halides. These grades offer tensile, creep and stress-rupture strength in higher-temperature applications. 316 and 316L offer better resistance to atmospheric and mild environments than 304 and 304L.
Design Features 316/316L
- 316 is resistant to dilute solutions (1-5%) of sulfuric acid to 49ºC (120ºF), except in some oxidising acids, where 316 is less resistant than 304.
- 316 is susceptible to inter granular corrosion in the as-welded condition
- 316 is prone to carbide precipitation from 427ºC to 816ºC (800ºF to 1500ºF)
- Corrosion resistance can be restored by post-welding annealing
- 316L offers same composition but with less than 0.03% carbon
- 316L presents similar corrosion resistance and other characteristics as 316 but with added resistance to inter granular attack in the as-welded condition or with short exposures in the 427ºC to 816ºC (800ºF to 1500ºF) range
- 316L is appropriate in applications where it’s impossible to avoid exposure in the carbide precipitation range and when post-welding annealing isn’t practical; lengthy exposure in this range may make the material brittle and susceptible to inter granular attack
- 316 maximum temperature for scaling resistance is 899ºC (1650ºF) in continuous service and 816ºC (1500ºF) in intermittent service applications
- 316L has a slightly lower pressure rating at very high temperatures compared to 316
- Susceptible to stress-corrossion cracking
- Slightly magnetic in the cold-worked condition
- Nonmagnetic and non harden able in the annealed condition
- Enhanced resistance to chlorides
After 304, 316 is the most common stainless steel on the market. It is an austenitic grade with the addition of 2-3% molybdenum which further improves corrosion resistance. It is often referred to as a marine grade stainless steel because of its effective resistance to chloride corrosion in comparison to other stainless steel grades.
The material has superior welding and forming qualities. Grade 316 will require post-weld annealing to promote maximum corrosion resistance, though this is not necessary if Type 316L is used.
Applications of Grade 316 Stainless Steel
Typical applications for this material are now widespread due to its superior corrosion resistance properties when compared to Grade 304. Type 316 stainless can be found in heat exchangers, pharmaceutical equipment, refineries, food industry, mining, process industries, etc.
316 & 316L steel valves have common properties and are often stocked by Global Supply Line with dual certification,where it is determined that both have properties and composition which comply with both steel types.
Type 316H is excluded from this overview but as a brief explanation, 316H is engineered to constantly work in even higher working temperatures than 316/316L. It should also be noted that 316L has a slightly lower maximum temperature rating and maximum cold working pressure rating than 316.
Type 316L is the low carbon version of 316 stainless. Again compared to 304/304L having the addition of molybdenum, the steel is popular for use in severe corrosion environments due to the materials immunity from boundary carbide precipitation (sensitisation) caused by welding.
Weld annealing is only required where the material is for use in high stress environments. 316L has an extensive variety of uses especially in highly corrosive applications.
Benefits of using Type 316L Stainless Steel
- Low carbon content eliminates carbon precipitation in the welding process
- Can be used in severe corrosive environments
- Improved anti-corrosion scope due to added molybdenum
- Very similar to Grade 316 in chemical composition and mechanical properties
316 & 316L valves have common properties and are often stocked by Global Supply Line with dual certification, where it is determined that both have properties and composition which comply with both steel types.
The below tables are correct as per A182/A182M-13
|Grade||C (MAX)||Si (Max)||Mn (Max)||P (Max)||S (Max)||Cr||Mo||Ni||N (Max)|
|Grade||Yield Strength||Tensile Strength||Elongation (%)||Reduction of Area (%)||Hardness Max|
|Min (Mpa)||Min (Mpa)||Min||Min (50mm)||HB||HR B|
* Maximum hardness not specified in ASTM A182/A182M-13
Equivalent Standards / Specifications
The following standards may be utilised for valve & trim components in valve construction:-
A312, A376, A358, A269, A249, A403, A182, A351
SA312, SA376, SA358, SA269, SA249, SA403, SA182, SA351
|FORGING SPECIFICATION||COMMON DESIGNATION||MATERIAL SUFFIX||WROUGHT BAR SPECIFICATION||SERVICE RECOMMENDATIONS (1)||COMMON API TRIM # FOR BASE MATERIAL|
|150 TO 600 #||900 TO 2500 #|
|ASTM A182 F316||18% Chrome; 12% Nickel; 2% Mo; 0.08% C Stainless Steel||ASTM A351 Grade CF8M||ASTM A479 316||Corrosive or either extremely low or high temperature non-corrosive services between -450ºF (-268ºC) and +1200ºF (+649ºC). Above +800ºF (+425ºC) specify carbon content of 0.04% or greater.||10, 12||12, 16|
|ASTM A182 F316L||18% Chrome; 12% Nickel; 2% Mo; 0.03% C Low Carbon Stainless Steel||ASTM A351 Grade CF3M||ASTM A479 316L||Acetic acid, calcium carbonate, calcium lactate, potable water, sea water, steam, sulfites.||316L+HFS||316L+HF|
|ASTM A182 F316H||18% Chrome; 8% Nickel; 2% Mo; 0.08% C Stainless Steel||ASTM A351 Grade CF10M||ASTM A479 316H||Corrosive or extremely high temperature non-corrosive services between -450ºF (-268ºC) and +1200ºF (+649ºC). Above +800ºF (+425ºC) specify carbon content of 0.04% or greater.||310H+HFS||310H+HF|
Major Categories of Common Valve Materials
|ASTM A105N||ASTM A216 WCB/WCC|
|ASTM A350 LF2||ASTM A352 LCB/LCC|
|ASTM A350 LF3||ASTM A352 LC3|
|ASTM A182 F5A/F5||ASTM A217 C5|
|ASTM A182 F9||ASTM A217 C12|
|ASTM A182 F11||ASTM A217 WC6|
|ASTM A182 F22||ASTM A217 WC9|
|ASTM A182 F91||ASTM A217 C12A|
|AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL|
|ASTM A182 F304/F304L||ASTM A351 CF8/CF3|
|ASTM A182 F316/F316L||ASTM A351 CF8M/CF3M|
|ASTM A182 F347||ASTM A351 CF8C|
|ASTM A182 F321|
|ASTM A182 F44 (6MO)||ASTM CK3MCuN|
|ASTM A182 F20* (ALLOY 20)||ASTM A351 CN7M|
|FERRITIC-AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL|
|ASTM A182 F51 – UNS S31803 (DUPLEX S.S.)||ASTM A351 CD3MN|
|ASTM A182 F53 – UNS S32750 (SUPER DUPLEX S.S.)||A890 GR.5A CE3MN*|
|ASTM A182 F55 – UNS S32760 (SUPER DUPLEX S.S.)||A890 GR.6A CD3MWCuN|
|INCONEL 825 – UNS N08825 ASTM B564-N08825||A484 CU 5MCuC*|
|INCONEL 600 – UNS N06600 ASTM B564-N06600||A494 CY40*|
|INCONEL 625 – UNS N06625 ASTM B564-N06625||A494 CW6MC*|
|MONEL 400 – UNS N04400 ASTM B564-N04400||A494 M35-1|
|ASTM B381 GR.F2||ASTM B367 GR.C2|
|ASTM B381 GR.F3||ASTM B367 GR.C3|
*No longer referenced in ASME B16.34-2009
COMPLETE VALVE SOLUTIONS FOR ALL INDUSTRIES
Global Supply Line offers valves in a wide variety of material combinations in carbon steel, stainless steels, exotic and special materials. We keep extensive stocks which are inventoried in our warehouses. Global Supply Line stocks and indents the following valves in all grades:-
- Ball Valves (Firesafe & non Firesafe)
- Check Valves (Piston, Swing, Tilt)
- Wafer Check Valves (Dual flap/ Single flap)
- Gate Valves (API603 & API600)
- Globe Valves (ANSI B16.34 & BS1873)
- Needle Valves (Plug and Globe type)
- Plug Valves (Lined & Sleeved)
- Strainers (Y, Basket & Duplex type)
PRODUCTS STOCKED BY GLOBAL SUPPLY LINE
- API 603 & 600 150# – 2500#
- API 602 & ANSI B16.34 800#, 1500#, 2500#, 2690#
- ANSI B16.34 & BS1873 150# – 2690#
- API 602 & BS5352 & ANSI B16.34 800#, 1500#, 2500#
- ANSI B16.34, API 6D, API 600
- API 602 & BS5352 & ANSI B16.34
- 800#, 1500#, 2500#, 2690#
- ANSI Class 150# – 2500#
Multi-way Ball Valve
- 3 Way
- 4 Way
Wafer Check Valves
- Dual & Single flap
- ANSI Class 150# – 2500#
Strainers (Y) Pattern & Basket
- ANSI Class 150# – 2690#
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